ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTITERMITIC ACTIVITIES OF VINEGARS FROM TWO BIOMASS RESOURCES AT DIFFERENT PYROLYTIC TEMPERATURES
Wood vinegar derived from Shorea laevis and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) under two different pyrolysis temperatures of 350 and 450° C as antifungal and antitermitic activities were assessed. The concentration of wood vinegar was 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v) against two fungi such as a Trametes versicolor and a Fomitopsis palustris. Meanwhile, they were tested by a no-choice test for antitermitic activities against Coptotermes formosanus with wood vinegar concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 % (v/v). Both wood vinegar have demonstrated strong as antifungal activity. Wood vinegar from OPEFB at pyrolysis temperature of 350 °C produced in thorough inhibition of the growth of T. versicolor at 1.5 %. The wood vinegar from S. laevis produced at 350 and 450 °C showed thorough inhibition of growth of T. versicolor at 1.5 %. Both wood vinegar required the higher concentrations to obtain the growth inhibition of F. palustris. Wood vinegar from OPEFB at 450 °C exhibited anti-termite activities to C. formosanus workers in the no-choice test. The concentration of vinegar (10 %) was needed to attain 100 % mortality against C. formosanus, meanwhile the lowest mass loss of the treated filter paper of 3.72 % was produced at pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C and concentration of wood vinegar of 10.0 %. Overall the dominant components of wood vinegar obtained from two biomass resources contained acetic acid, 2-propanone, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, butyric acid, formic acid, botanoic acid, 4-metyl phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl phenol and 2,6-dimethoxy phenol.