Journal of Applied Biological Sciences <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>Journal of Applied Biological sciences (JABS)&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, dedicated to publication of original research, review articles, short communications on applied researches in following fields of biology; Physiology and&nbsp;Pharmacology,&nbsp;Cell biology, Developmental biology, Structural biology, Microbiology, Ecology, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Food Science, Medicinal Plants, Ethnobotany, Environmental biology, Marine biology, Viorology, Veterinary Science, Medical Biology, Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Evolutionary biology, Animal Science, Plant Science, Plant pathology, Plant physiology, Plant breeding,&nbsp;Nematology, Agriculture Science, Agronomy, Soil Science and Horticulture.</p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should ensure the originality of their contents, while preparing a manuscript draft. In case the authors have used the work and/or words of others this must be appropriately cited or quoted. All the articles submitted to JABS shall be screened for plagiarism using&nbsp;<strong>iThenticate</strong>&nbsp;(online plagiarism detection software). In case, plagiarism is detected during review/editorial process, such manuscript(s) will be rejected immediately. If the plagiarism is proven after publication, such manuscript(s) will be retracted from the journal and appropriate announcement will be placed in this regards. We can also consider appropriate action against authors depending upon the seriousness of the case. It includes;</p> <ol> <li class="show">Debarring the authors from publication in future.</li> <li class="show">We can bring such instants in notice of author's funding agencies, author's institutes (where they works) and to the original authors whose work has been&nbsp;plagiarized.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;JABS welcomes&nbsp;article&nbsp;submissions&nbsp;and&nbsp;<strong>does not charge any article submission or processing&nbsp;charges</strong>.</p> </div> en-US (Prof. Dr. Mehmet KARATAS, Editor in Chief, JABS, Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Biotechnology, Meram, Konya/TURKEY) (Assoc. Prof. Dr. Husamettin EKICI, Editor, Kırıkkale University, Ankara / TURKEY) Wed, 25 Oct 2023 02:05:25 +0300 OJS 60 ZN TOLERANCE IN ANABAENA VARIABILIS MEGCH1: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF CARBON AND NITROGEN ASSIMILATION; MORPHOLOGY AND ULTRASTRUCTURE <p>The present work was conducted to check the effects of Zn exposure (10 - 100 µM) in the cyanobacterium <em>Anabaena variabilis </em>MEGCH1 over a period of seven days. The Zn concentration, even the lowest limit considered for the study, was substantially higher than that is generally found in coal mine contaminated wastewater. Most biochemical parameters in the organism showed marked tolerance towards Zn exposure up to a concentration of ~ 30 µM, although, in the presence of a higher Zn concentration, the organism showed substantial changes in its biomass, morphology, and ultrastructure, indicating the toxic nature of chronic Zn exposure. Similar toxicity was also evident in the entire C-fixation machinery, including the photosynthetic pigments, rate of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chain activities, and total carbohydrate content. There were negative impacts recorded on the heterocysts’ frequency as well as on nitrogenase and glutamine synthetase enzyme activities that resulted in poor nitrogen fixation and assimilation. Consequently, the level of soluble protein content within the cells was also reduced. These adverse effects were reflected in an obvious decrease in total biomass production. The increase in the total proline content of the treated culture clearly indicated that the organism was under obvious stress under Zn exposure. The cyanobacterium's survival and performance, however, in the presence of significant Zn ions in its surroundings, indicated that the organism could be considered for bioremediation technologies.</p> Omega Lasienhun Diengdoh, Sukjailin Ryntathiang, Mayashree B Syiem Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 PHENYLTHIOCARBAMIDE (PTC) TASTE PERCEPTION: A STUDY CORRELATING THE SENSITIVITY TO BITTER TASTE AND THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS DEMOGRAPHIC AND PSYCHOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS <p>The current study sought to elucidate the relationship between taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) in a group of 157 people of both sexes (67 males and 90 females), representing a random sample of the population over the age of 18, with diverse food preferences and dietary habits. The taste sensitivity to (PTC), a bitter-tasting compound (determined to be a genetically controlled trait) was carried out with the help of PTC strips. The study also exploited the fact that the various demographic variables such as age, sex, and psychographic parameters like food choices, lifestyle, etc., significantly influenced the taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide and therein other bitter-tasting compounds. The results expressed a clear demarcation (p 0.5) between the taster and non-taster status between both the sexes; with the females being more sensitive to PTC (72.2% as tasters) than the males (64.2 %). A significant rise was observed in the taster status among individuals aged 18–24 years, with 75.49 % as tasters. PTC taster status and beverage consumption frequency were found to be negatively correlated; the opposite was observed for non-tasters. The study also extrapolated the finding that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) tasters have a higher rejection of strong-tasting foods, whereas non-tasters have a higher acceptance of these foods. PTC can be used as a genetic marker to pinpoint risk factors related to and a reliable determinant of susceptibility to weight gain. Individuals who are sensitive to bitter tastes often have a fairly low orientation for bitter-tasting foods. The key findings of this study indicate a link between PTC perception and variables such as age, gender, food choices, and dietary habits.</p> Sharon Rose Mathew, Sushama P S, Eram S Rao, Rizwana, Aparna Agarwal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 ROLE OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (LAURACEAE) AND NIGELLA SATIVA (RANUNCULACEAE) VOLATILE OILS IN MAIZE WEEVIL, SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS, MOTSCHULSKY MANAGEMENT <p>Synthetic insecticides used indiscriminately in insect pest management programme results in carcinogenicity, mutagenesis, neurotoxicity and teratogenicity in non-target animals and development of resistance in target animals. These issues have diverted the researches aiming insect pest management towards the use of plant volatiles. In this study, insecticidal properties of <em>Cinnamomum tamala </em>(Lauraceae) and <em>Nigella sativa </em>(<em>Ranunculaceae</em>) volatile oils have been evaluated against maize weevil, <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Coleoptera: <em>Curculionidae</em>). Volatile oils were isolated and tested for repellent, toxic, oviposition inhibitory, developmental inhibitory and feeding inhibitory properties against <em>S. zeamais</em>. In toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations of <em>C. tamala</em> and <em>N. sativa </em>oils were 0.396 and 0.334 μlcm<sup>-3</sup>; and 0.369 and 0.328 μlcm<sup>-3 </sup>air respectively when <em>S. zeamais</em> adults were fumigated for 24 and 48h. In contact toxicity assay, lethal concentrations of <em>C. tamala</em> and <em>N. sativa </em>oils were 0.287 and 0.205 μlcm<sup>-2</sup>; and 0.246 and 0.195 μlcm<sup>-2 </sup>area for 24 and 48h respectively when <em>S. zeamais</em> adults were exposed. These two volatile oils used reduced acetylcholine esterase activity in adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentrations. Both volatile oils significantly reduced oviposition, progeny production and feeding, but, increased developmental period in <em>S. zeamais</em>. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two oils viz. <em>C. tamala</em> and <em>N. sativa</em> oils can be used in preparation of volatile oil based formulations in insect pest management.</p> Mukesh Chaubey, Namita Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY ON SOME ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS IN CATS <p>This research aimed to study the short-term effect of ovariohysterectomy on oxidant/antioxidant status in healthy cats. Twenty-two female cats were allocated to the present study. All the cats were anesthetized with the xylazine-ketamine and spayed. Blood samples were collected before (D0) and three and ten days after the ovariohysterectomy to determine serum malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase concentrations. There was a statistical increase in MDA concentrations on Day 3 compared to Day 0 (p&lt;0.05). There were no statistical differences in the MDA concentrations between Day 3 and Day 10. Catalase activity showed a remarkable increment on Day 3 compared to Day 0 and then a declination on Day 10 compared to Day 3 (p&lt;0.05). Glutathione activity was greater on Day 3 and Day 10 compared to Day 0. Glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased on Day 3 compared to Day 0 and then increased on Day 10. Nevertheless, these increases were not significant. In conclusion, this study clearly showed that ovariohysterectomy surgery resulted in oxidative stress within the first three days after ovariohysterectomy and oxidative stress disappeared ten days after ovariohysterectomy.</p> Ahmet Gözer, Onur Bahan, İshak Gökçek, Ufuk Kaya, Gökhan Uyanık, Gökhan Doğruer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 TOXICOKINETICS PATTERN OF FLUORIDE IN CAT FISH, CLARIAS BATRACHUS <p>One of the major ground water pollutants is Fluoride, which is contributed in the environment by both natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic means. Fluorine is an essential element for living organism. Chronic exposure study of 60 days was carried out in model fish, <em>Clarias batrachus</em>, where the fishes were divided into three groups; control (Group I), 10 mgL<sup>-1</sup> (Group II) and 20mgL<sup>-1</sup>(Group III) NaF.In a regular interval period of 15 days, accumulation status were reported in biological tissues. Maximum fluoride accumulation was found in Bone followed by liver, kidney, muscle and blood. After exposure of fishes to NaF for 60 days, depuration pattern was studied in group II and group III. Fishes from exposed groups were transferred to clean water, for a period of 20 days. Maximum depuration was observed in liver tissues followed by muscle, bone, kidney, blood. Depuration in group III was in the order; liver followed by kidney and muscle, bone and blood.</p> Purva Mishra, Aditi Niyogi Poddar, Shivani Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 INVESTIGATION OF CHOLESTEROL AND BLOOD GLUCOSE-REDUCING PROPERTIES AND ACUTE TOXICITIES OF THE TEA PREPARED BY VERNONIA CINEREA L. USING WISTAR RAT ANIMAL MODEL AND QUANTIFICATION OF FLAVONOID AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS <p>According to Ayurvedic and folkloric medicine of Sri Lanka, tea prepared using dried leaf powder of <em>Vernonia cinerea </em>L. (S. Monarakudummbiya<strong>)</strong> has many therapeutic effects including blood glucose and cholesterol-reducing properties. The study investigate cholesterol and blood glucose-reducing properties and acute toxicities exerted by <em>V. cinerea</em> <em>L</em> tea and quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Three months Wistar (20) rats were recruited for the study and divided randomly (n=10) into two groups. One group of rats was daily given tea prepared using the leaf powder of <em>V. cinerea</em> while the other group was given an equal volume of distilled water. Their baseline biochemical parameters, such as blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), triglycerides, creatinine levels, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were measured. This experiment was carried out for 28 continuous days and repeated the same biochemical parameters on the 29<sup>th</sup> day. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in the <em>V. cinerea</em> tea. There was a significant increment of HDL cholesterol levels whilst total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose remained unaffected. There was no significant increase in ALT, AST and creatinine, indicating no acute toxicities in the prepared tea. Total p<em>henolic and total flavonoid content in V. cinerea</em> tea were <em>GAE/g of extract at 28.62±1.06 and 19.20±2.7 respectively. </em><em>V. cinerea</em> tea<em> was rich in therapeutically important phytochemicals</em> such as phenols and flavonoids that can significantly increase HDL cholesterol levels in Wistar rats. <em>V.</em> <em>cinerea</em> can be further improved as a green tea.</p> Abeywardena Kavindu Kusal, Thammitiyagodage Mayuri Geethanjalie, Warahakgoda Gedara Sarath Sisira Kumara, Alosius Thushari Nelka Munasinghe, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 ISOLATION OF DNA BY PHENOL-CHLOROFORM EXTRACTION METHOD FROM SHED AND WAITING FEATHERS OF PSITTACIFORMES BIRD ORDER <p>In this study, it was aimed to isolate DNA from shed and waiting (at least two weeks) wing/tail feathers of the <em>Psittaciformes </em>bird order (<em>Ara chloropterus</em>, <em>Cacatua galerita</em>, <em>Lorius garrulous</em>, <em>Amazona ochrocephala</em>, <em>Ara ararauna</em>, <em>Psittacus erithacus</em>, n=17) using the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction method. The isolated DNAs was subjected to polymerase chain reaction with a primer commonly used for sex determination in birds. According to the nanodrop measurement results, it was revealed that sufficient DNA concentration to be used in DNA-based molecular studies can be obtained using the phenol-chloroform isolation method. Gender-specific band images were obtained from all DNA samples isolated according to PCR analysis performed for control purposes. As a result, it was revealed that DNA isolation can be done successfully with the Phenol-chloroform isolation method from the shed and waiting wing/tail feathers of the bird species <em>Psittaciformes</em>. It was concluded that non-invasively obtained DNAs can be used in molecular methods.</p> Esma Gamze Aksel, Halil İbrahim Kasırga, Mahmut Tekin, Korhan Arslan, Bilal Akyüz Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE GENES OF ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM SHEEP MILK WITH SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS <p>This study aimed to investigate the formation of antimicrobial resistance genes associated with vancomycin and gentamicin, as well as the capacity to develop biofilms, in <em>Enterococcus</em> sp. strains isolated from subclinical mastitis in sheep. In total, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> (22/26, 84.62%) was found to be the most prevalent species among the samples of mastitic milk collected from sheep. In general, <em>E. faecalis</em> strains exhibited higher resistance compared to <em>Enterococcus faecium</em>. After isolation and identification using polymerase chain reaction, a total of twenty-six enterococci (22 <em>E. faecalis</em>, 4 <em>E. faecium</em>) were submitted to susceptibility tests against eight antimicrobial agents. The isolates indicated multidrug resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), kanamycin (100%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100%). All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (100%), and florfenicol (100%) and vancomycin susceptibility was observed in 53.85% of the isolates. The dominant antimicrobial resistance genes detected in our isolates were <em>vanB</em> (19.23%), <em>aph(2”)-Ia1</em> (61.54%), <em>aph(2”)-Id1</em> (26.92%), and <em>esp</em> (65.38%) as the most common virulence gene. This research indicated a significant occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in <em>E. faecalis</em> and <em>E. faecium</em> strains obtained from subclinical sheep mastitis. The increasing resistance of enterococci to antibiotics poses a growing challenge to both human well-being and the environment.</p> Volkan Özavci, Hafize Tuğba Yüksel Dolgun, Yiğit Seferoğlu, Şükrü Kırkan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 UNKNOWN AGENT IN MARES: CHLAMYDIA ABORTUS <p><em>Chlamydia abortus</em> is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogen. The causative agent causes infections by affecting the urogenital system in humans and many animals due to its zoonotic character. It has been reported that <em>C. abortus </em>previously developed forms characterized by abortion in sheep and goats. Studies on horses from farm animals are very rare in our country and in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of <em>C. abortus </em>in mares. For our research, vaginal swab samples were collected from 123 mares from farms in different settlements in Turkey. Samples were tested by real time PCR method. As a result of the test, a total of 4 (3.25%) samples were evaluated as <em>C. abortus </em>positive. As a result of the evaluation, in the analysis of variance with the 95% confidence interval, it was determined as 1.0577 for Marmara, 1.0233 for Southeast Anatolia, and 1.0000 for the Eastern Anatolia region. The presence of this agent, which is very difficult in culture isolation, was demonstrated in mares by molecular diagnosis. According to this result, it was concluded that it would be beneficial to take precautions against <em>C. abortus </em>infections in horse farms as in other farm animals. At the same time, our study is one of the rare studies in which <em>C. abortus </em>infection was investigated by real time PCR in mares genital swap samples. It will also contribute to further studies to determine the presence of infection in mares to understand the transmission cycle. It should not be forgotten that this agent, which is zoonotic and causes abortions, may also carry a risk for people working in horse farms and having a history of contact.</p> Derya Karataş Yeni , Aslı Balevi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM L. ESSENTIAL OIL FROM BURKINA FASO <p><em>Ocimum gratissimum </em>L. is an aromatic herbaceous plant that is native to tropical countries especially West Africa, India and South America. It has been traditionally used for medicinal, condiment and culinary purposes and many biological properties have been reported on its essential oils (EOs). This study aims to determine the physico-chemical parameters and assess the antioxidant potential of this plant’s EO. Thus, fresh leaves of <em>O. gratissimum</em> were collected from the cultivated field of Irsat (Ouagadougou), Burkina Faso at the full blooming stage. These leaves were hydrodistilled and analyzed immediately after collection (fresh) to evaluate the quality of volatile constituents in terms of composition by GC-MS. Physico-chemical properties were determined by using international standards ISO. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2’-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the 2,2’ azinobis 3 ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. The study revealed the presence of thymol (29.5%), γ-terpinene (20.5%) and p-cymene (12.9%) as EO major constituents. For physico-chemical parameters, the relative density value was less than 1. A low content of free acids was found. The EO had low light refraction and was found to be dextro-rotatory. The EO was soluble in 7 volumes of ethanol (70%) and values obtained for the acid index and refractive index were less than 2. The antioxidant activity showed DPPH radical inhibition value of 41.16 % at 0.1% of EO concentration with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 3.9 μg/ml. The ABTS radical inhibition value was 36.14 % at 0.1% of EO concentration with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 3.13 mg/ml. The present study has permitted to verification of the quality of <em>O. gratissimum</em> EO produced in Burkina Faso and showed that this oil could be a promising source of antioxidant compounds.</p> Anass Coulibaly, Ignace Sawadogo, Mahomed Toé, M. Delphine Hema, K. Rémy Bationo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, C.H Roger Nébié Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND IN VITRO WOUND HEALING EFFECTS OF META COLLAGEN <p>The imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause oxidative stress which is harmful to skin health. Moreover, oxidative stress could also impair the healing of a wound. Antioxidants have been demonstrated their benefits to skin health and wound healing. Previous studies have shown collagen tripeptide has beneficial effects on skins, such as alleviating photoaging, improving skin elasticity and hydration, improving type I collagen synthesis and more. In this study, anti-oxidant activities and <em>in vitro</em> wound healing effects of Meta collagen (Highly content dipeptide and tripeptide) were investigated. The skin irritation test of Meta collagen was also studied. In the DPPH scavenging assay, Meta collagen could scavenge DPPH dose-dependently and showed the anti-oxidant activity. Meta collagen could enhance the migration of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting its <em>in vitro</em> wound healing effects. Meanwhile, Meta collagen (1000 mg/mL) is considered as non-irritant to skin by using a reconstructed human epidermis. According to these results, Meta collagen shows anti-oxidant activities and <em>in vitro</em> wound healing effects without skin irritation. Meta collagen might be a potential material to be developed as a skin care product in the future.</p> Hung-Yuan Kao, Shu-I Jen, Yu-Chen Kao, Zong-Keng Kuo, Szu-Hsiu Liu Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF CULTIVATED AND WILD MANGOES FROM BANGLADESH BASED ON PCR AMPLIFICATION PATTERN OF TANDEMLY ORGANIZED REPEAT SEQUENCES <p><em>Mangifera</em> is an economically important genus mainly because of the delicious fruit produced by many species of this genus. Wild species available in Bangladesh of this genus are often misidentified and have ambiguous taxonomic leveling, due to the difficulty of getting the appropriate sample for plant identification. Tandem repeat diversity was analyzed from the <em>Mangifera</em> genome, to understand their impact on the genomic diversity of different species and cultivars available in Bangladesh. We use tandem repeats amplification pattern for mango diversity analysis because of the fact that satellite repeats (longer arrayed tandem repeats) are usually rapidly evolving parts of the genome, found to even diversify in closely related species, hence is useful to study genome diversity analysis. RepeatExplorer2-based bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify tandemly organized repeat sequences. Face to face PCR primers were developed from each of the consensus sequences of the identified tandem repeats sequences. Our results showed that the studied samples showed a tandem repeat-specific PCR amplification pattern that corresponds to their monomer size variation, confirming the presence of genomic organization of each repeat type. Three primer pairs targeting three tandem repeat specific clusters CL18, CL165 and CL335 showed genotype specific patterns, while CL201 and CL283 produced similar banding patterns in all the studied genotype. However, CL19 failed to follow any consistent banding pattern in all three species and cultivars except smear. Our results suggest that although cultivated <em>M. indica</em> genotypes are very similar in terms of tandem repeat diversity but the wild species collected from different locations of Bangladesh are indeed different. Therefore, in depth taxonomic investigation is necessary to solve the taxonomic ambiguity of wild <em>Mangifera </em>germplasm available in Bangladesh.</p> Nusrat Sultana, Samsunnahar Oishi, Tanzena Tanny, Mohammad Abdur Rahim Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF MODIFIED 8 TECNIQUE AND THE CLASSICAL REPAIR METHOD ON HEALING IN THE RAT ABDOMINAL HERNIA MODEL <p>The treatment of hernias varies according to the region, type, and tissue involved. There have been numerous studies on different treatment methods. The objective of this study was to compare the modified 8-suture technique with the standard suture technique in a rat abdominal hernia model. Fourteen adult male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group and the experimental group. Initially, an experimental abdominal hernia was created. The paramedian line was selected as the site for the skin incision. After the skin incision, the subcutaneous connective tissue was removed, and the ventral abdominal muscles were dissected bluntly to create a 3 cm hernia opening. In the control group, simple standard sutures were used for hernia repair. In the study group, the hernial orifice was closed using the modified figure-of-8 technique, followed by simple sutures to close the skin. On postoperative day 21, the animals were euthanized using CO<sub>2</sub>. Histopathological analysis revealed that the modified 8-suture technique resulted in less pronounced fibrosis associated with inflammatory changes, decreased areas of necrosis and tissue loss, increased connective tissue around the region, and higher collagen development compared to the standard suture technique. Fibrosis formation was more evident and frequent in the control group with normal sutures, but collagen formation was lower. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study indicate that the modified 8-suture technique provides more effective closure of the hernial ring compared to simple sutures, and the regeneration process is faster than with the standard suture technique. This technique could be considered as an alternative to traditional suture applications for hernias that are large enough to affect the wound line.</p> Mohammed Abdulateef, Ali Kumandas, Mehmet Eray Alçığır Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 NEW RECORDS OF APHIDS (HEMIPTERA: APHIDOIDEA) FROM TURKIYE WITH NEW HOST PLANT AND ANT INTERACTIONS <p>Aphids are one of the most important pest group since they invade new zoogeographical regions and new host plants, increase their damages to agricultural crops and benefited from global warming in contrast to most of the species. In turn, the determination of the aphid composition of any geographical area becomes much more important. In accordance with given general prospects, five aphid species, <em>Aphis</em> (<em>Aphis</em>) <em>cisticola</em> Leclant &amp; Remaudière, 1972; <em>Brachycaudus (Prunaphis) malvae </em>Shaposhnikov, 1964; <em>Pemphigus</em> (<em>Pemphigus</em>) <em>fuscicornis</em> (Koch,1857); <em>Tinocallis</em> (<em>Orientinocallis</em>) <em>himalayensis</em> Ghosh, Ghosh &amp; Raychaudhuri, 1971; <em>Chaitophorus</em> <em>capreae</em> (Mosley, 1841) were added to Türkiye aphid fauna and number of the species listed increased to 675. There are also new host plant relations and ant attendance was determined for the first time. Among the identified species, the oriental region originated <em>T. himalayensis</em> was recorded as the alien aphid species for Türkiye aphid fauna.</p> Gazi Görür, Gizem Başer, Bengisu Venhar Akçay, Özhan Şenol, Hayal Akyıldırım Beğen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300 EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY PROPERTIES OF HORSE MEAT SAUSAGE ‘CHUCHUK’ <p>The consumption of horsemeat is a traditional practice in several Asian countries, including Kyrgyzstan. This study aimed to evaluate chuchuk samples made form horse meat regarding their physicochemical and microbiological quality properties. For that purpose, 32 samples of chuchuk samples from bazars in the Chuy region of Kyrgyzstan were collected aseptically and under cold chain conditions, then subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analyses. The results of the microbiological quality assessment for horsemeat chuchuk revealed mean and maximum values expressed as log10 CFU/g. The findings for mean and maximum values were as follows: total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (7.54; 8.91), total psychrophilic microorganisms (7.34; 8.97), enterobacter (2.46; 7.76), coliform (1.96; 7.84), <em>E. coli</em> (0.31; 4.55), <em>Enterococcus</em> (4.94; 6.67), <em>S. aureus</em> (5.89; 7.73), <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. (1.22; 6.64), <em>Clostridium</em> spp. (0.12; 2.70), lactic acid bacteria (7.58; 9.02), and yeast/mold (6.17; 8.67). Also, mean values for physico-chemical parameters are as follows: pH (6.32), dry matter (33.04), ash (2.37), protein (19.78), fat (31.82), water activity (aw) (0.96). Results indicated increased levels of TAM, pathogens, and indicator microbes. This highlights the potential health risks associated with non-standardized and primitive production conditions and the lack of compliance with hygiene standards throughout the production and storage of chuchuk in the surveyed units. Likewise, standardized production methods and basic hygiene measures are essential to ensure that chuchuk are safe to eat and regulatory authorities need to be consistent in carrying out hygiene inspections and in enforcing dissuasive measures against non-compliant establishments. In addition, the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) can constitute useful tools in covering the food chain from production to consumption, in line with the concept of 'food safety from farm to fork'.</p> Fatih Ramazan Istanbullugil, Rabia Mehtap Tuncay, Ulas Acaroz, Damla Arslan-Acaroz, Yakup Can Sancak Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 25 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0300